International Institute of Refrigeration
Ammonia and CO2 Refrigeration Technologies
International Conference
- Ohrid 2015 -

Keynote Speakers

Dr Andy Pearson Dr Andy Pearson, UK,
Star Refrigeration Ltd
Past President of IoR (UK),
Member of IIR Commission E1
"Why is ammonia such a good refrigerant?" 
Dr Predrag Hrnjak Dr Predrag Hrnjak, USA,
University of Illinois
Member of IIR Commission E2,
Former member of IIAR Board of Directors
"In-tube evaporation of CO2: visualization and effect of oil" 
Dr Armin Hafner, Norway,
Senior Research Scientist
"2020 Perspectives for CO2 refrigeration and heat pump systems" 
Eric Smith, USA,
Vice President and Technical Director of the IIAR (Int. Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration)
"Navigating the regulatory environment and opportunities for new technologies in the U.S." 
Maurice Young, UK,
Maurice Young Consulting Ltd
Director and Principal Consultant
"The compliance of ammonia refrigeration plants with the EU ATEX Directive"

Main Topics of the Conference

Design of modern ammonia (NH3) systems and technological innovation
Low charge ammonia technology; Small size ammonia systems; Factory-made units; 
Advanced design and testing methods;
Compatibility of ammonia with metals and new oils.

Design of carbon dioxide (CO2) refrigeration and heat pump systems
Transcritical and subcritical operation;
Modifications of cycles to improve the energy efficiency;
Development of CO2 systems intended for hot climate;
Ejector as an expansion device.

New innovative components
Plate and “shell & plate” heat exchangers; DX evaporators;
Microchannel air-cooled condensers; Improved evaporative condensers;
Semi-hermetic and hermetic ammonia compressors;
High-pressure ammonia and CO2 compressors.

Energy efficiency of ammonia and CO2 refrigerating systems
Advantages of ammonia and CO2 versus fluorocarbon-based systems;
New secondary coolants; CO2 as a secondary coolant;
NH3/CO2 cascade systems.

Applications of ammonia and CO2 refrigeration
Cold stores, food and drink industries; Supermarkets; Air-conditioning systems (liquid chillers);
Heat pumps (medium and high temperature heating).

Absorption machines
Modified absorption cycles; Trigeneration and district cooling.

Ammonia and CO2 systems in developing countries
Modernisation, improvements, technical assistance, barriers.

Technical and safety issues; Guidelines and training materials
Regulations on the construction and operation of ammonia and CO2 refrigerating systems;
Education and training for: best practices, operating procedures, handling and safe operation.

Public awareness of the image and benefits of natural refrigerants
Crucial and sustainable contributions to a better environment; Barriers to market penetration;
Current and future use of natural refrigerants; Montreal and Kyoto Protocol, phase-down of HFCs.